We have recorded four cases of positive typhoid which include the one for the girl who passed on. So far we have 14 people receiving treatment at Beatrice Infectious Diseases Hospital. They are all out of danger and could be discharged anytime today. Of the three positive cases (live people) two have since been discharged. We are encouraging people with headaches; high temps; stomach aches and any other pain to come and receive free treatment.
Typhoid fever is a notifiable disease caused by Salmonella Typhi bacterium.
2.How is typhoid transmitted?
Human beings are the only natural host and reservoir, infection is mainly transmitted by ingestion of faecal contamination of water and food.
3.How do you identify a person with Typhoid Fever?
Any person with gradual onset of steadily increasing and then persistently high fever,chills, malaise,headache,sore throat, cough,and sometimes abdominal pain and constipation or diarrhoea.
4.Clinical Features of Typhoid Fever
Clinical presentation of typhoid fever varies from a mild illness with low grade fever, malaise and dry cough to a severe clinical picture with abdominal discomfort, altered mental status and multiple complications.
Clinical diagnosis maybe difficult and may require a blood test to be done which is known as a Widal Test other test may include micro culture and sensitivity of a patients stool or rectal swab,in the absence of laboratory confirmation, any case of fever of at least 38 degrees Celsius for 3 or more days is considered suspect.
5.What are the Complications of Typhoid Fever?
A patient with Typhoid may develop serious complications most noted being intestinal haemorrhage (bleeding in the intestines)or peritonitis due to intestinal perforation.
6.How is Typhoid Fever managed/treated?
90 percent of patients with Typhoid can be managed at home with oral antibiotics, minimum nursing care but close medical follow up for complications or failure to respond to medication.
Doctors may prescribe a variety of oral drugs as well as injectable antibiotics.
Dehydration is not common in typhoid fever but electrolyte imbalance, hypoglycaemia,hypokalaemia and hyponatremia normally occur and may require intravenous solutions to correct this. In cases of intestinal perforation parenteral nutrition maybe advised and administered.
7.How can we prevent the spread of typhoid in the community?
The prevention of typhoid can be achieved by practicing good hand hygiene,always wash hands with soap before and after eating food, after using the toilet,when preparing meals.
Always dispose of human waste properly,use toilets and avoid bush system.Promote boiling of drinking water or use of germ killing water tablets,always wash fruits thoroughly before consumption.
If a case of Typhoid Fever is suspected it is advised that the suspected person be taken to the nearest hospital or clinic for treatment.
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Reference books:Essential Drug List of Zimbabwe (EDLIZ )
: Centre for Disease Control ( CDC USA)
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